What is Robotic Surgery and Medical Science?
Avoiding of physically touching a patient and operating remotely with minimally invasive methods are the features of robotic surgery. Robotics Surgery and Medical Science also called robotic-assisted surgery that has revolutionized old ways of operating patients and gives more control, while surgery than techniques available before. In other words, unlike traditional techniques, robotic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure that helps the surgeons to perform complex surgeries with precision and accuracy.
Here minimally invasive means miniaturizing of surgical equipment so that doctors can avoid large incisions and can use robots to perform the procedure. Robotics Surgery and Medical Science can also be used with the traditional techniques of surgery to ease and minimizing the complexity of the surgery and can share the workload of surgeons. Similarly, advancement in the field of medical sciences, medical imaging and endoscopy techniques lead the researchers to invent tiny robots that can perform these duties efficiently.
History of Robotic Surgery and Medical Science
Development in the field of robotics noticed at a rapid pace since last century. Because of its great applications both in industry and social life, scientists have done a lot of research in this area. History of robotics start in 1921 when the term of robot introduced by the Karel Capek (Czech play writer). He used them in his play (Rossom’s Universal Robots). Since it is being used industrially and socially. However, with passing time the accuracy and precision of robots increased and it was the time when scientists used the robot in the field of medical science.
It was 1985 when PUMA 500 (robotic arm) was used for the first time in the neurosurgical biopsy. It is the robotic surgery which lead to preform Laparoscopy. Laparoscopy is the technique that uses tiny fiber optics to visualize the inside of the body while surgery, e.g., in Kidney Transplant and Artificial Intelligence Technology. The first laparoscopy procedure, cholecystectomy was performed in 1987. Later on, development got boost especially in this field when in 2000 a robot named da Vinci Surgery System was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for general laparoscopy. This is the robot that gives a three-dimensional magnifying view to the surgeons. Moreover, its one-centimeter diameter arm really helps the while performing precise surgeries.
What are Robotics Surgery and Medical Science Techniques and Examples?
There are different types of robotic surgeries for example laparoscopy, thoracoscopic and keyhole surgery. These are different minimally invasive techniques that use robotics.
In the techniques mentioned above endoscopy is used by doctors. Endoscopy is the method in which doctors use optical fiber camera and send it through mouth or nostrils. This tube is linked to the use of tiny surgical instruments. In this way, doctors do surgery by viewing inside the body of the subject on screen without making incisions or touching tissues.
In 1990 the first time robot used for cardiac surgery. The first technique named (MINIMALLY INVASIVE DIRECT CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS) MIDCAB uses to bypass a single vessel on the frontal surface of a beating heart through a small anterior thoracotomy. A second approach to perform a task through endoscopy, in which the procedure performed on the arrested heart using the cardiopulmonary technique. As cardiac surgery like Expert Systems for medical diagnosis involves complexities so endoscopy not recommended to perform the task. So both surgeries, mitral valve and simple coronary bypass done by using a small incision.
Based on the Robotics Surgery and Medical Science techniques mentioned above, OPCAB (OFF PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING) evolved which is capable of doing multi-vessel surgery on beating heart. It requires a median sternotomy incision but less incision as compared to open-heart surgery. Although it is still wide exposure surgery on beating heart gives better outcomes as compared to old techniques available. The feasibility of this procedure depends upon the mechanical stability of instruments used in surgery.
Advantages and Disadvantages?
The first advantage that make this technology attractive both for subject and operator is its capability of requiring small incision as compared to the conventional technique. Moreover, the patient feels to relax while operation.
On the patient end this technique friendly because it hurt the patient less as compared to old times. Especially in the case of open-heart surgery where the risk of life was far more than nowadays.
Short Hospital Stay
Robotic surgery does not require long hospital stays and saves both time and resources.
Surgical System Advantages
There are a number of surgical system advantages as it provides better insight Vision (3D), digital camera zoom and its stability and improved dexterity.
The major disadvantage is its high cost. This cost comes not only in a startup but also it requires special attention while maintenance and also need special resources to look after the robotic system.
Bulky Size of Robotic System
It is difficult to handle and move it because of its bulky size. Not only sometimes it is difficult to access for the patient but also doctors feel difficulty to control it remotely because of not having tactile feedback.
The major risk in this technique is the chance of breakdown of any instrument while operation which arises more complexity. This system usually uses 8mm ports.
The economic impact of Robotic
This high demand for robots reflects the interest of industries in robots because of its benefits which include time-saving and reduction in labor costs. On the other hand, it has a great impact on society as it is becoming the cause of unemployment which ultimately gives rise to poverty in society. In addition to this, it is the cause of the monopoly of robot manufacturing companies. Especially in the case of robot used in medical that is patent by particular companies. This all becomes the cause of the unequal distribution of wealth which is the root cause of inflation.
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