## What is Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence is also called machine intelligence. Humans associate with the human mind such as learning and problem-solving. Artificial intelligence It is used to solve various kinds of computational problems. Artificial intelligence includes programming computers for a certain trait such as:

• Perception
• Reasoning
• Problem-solving
• Learning
• Language

### 1: Perception:

A percept is an input that an intelligent agent perceives at any given moment. A perception presumes sensation, where the various type of sensor who converts the simple signals into data of the system.

### 2: Reasoning:

The reasoning is the process of deriving logical conclusions from the given facts. Such types of reasoning are:

• Deducted reasoning
• Inductive reasoning
• Abductive reasoning
• Analogical reasoning
• Common sense reasoning
• Non-monotonic reasoning

#### Deductive reasoning:

In deductive reasoning the premises are true the conclusion must also be true. E.g.

All men are mortal. Socrates is a man

_We can deduce: Socrates is mortal.

#### Inductive reasoning:

Premises support the conclusion but do not guarantee that it will be true.E.G.

Observation: All the crows that I have seen in my life is black

Conclusion: All crows are black

#### Abductive reasoning:

In this reasoning, the conclusion might be wrong e.g.

• Implication: it is carried umbrella if it is raining
• Axiom: she is carrying an umbrella
• Conclusion: it is raining

#### Analogical reasoning:

Analogical reasoning works between two situations, looking for similarities and differences. E.g.

#### Common-sense reasoning:

The way to obtain common sense is by learning it or experiences it. E.g. robots

#### Non-monotonic reasoning;

Non-monotonic reasoning is used when the facts of the case are likely to change after some time. E.g.

Rule: if the wind blows

Then: the curtains swing

### 3: Problem-solving:

Collection of information that the agent decides what to do. There are two types of problems.

• Single state problem
• Multi-state problem

#### Single state problem:

When the environment is completely accessible and the agent can calculate its state after any sequence of action.

#### Multi-state problem:

When the environment is not fully accessible, the goal state may not be reachable in one action.

### Problem-solving agents:

• Rational agents
• Problem-solving agent

#### Rational agents:

The agents are supposed to maximize their performance measures.

#### Problem-solving agent:

The agents can adopt a goal.

### Component of problem-solving:

• Problem statement
• Problem solution
• Solution space
• Traveling in the solution space

#### Problem statement:

This is a very essential component where we give us a feel of what exactly to do.it also contains the problem information and constraint over the problem.

For example:

The mouse has to get the cheese in an hour.

#### Problem solution:

It should be known that what should be the ultimate aim of the problem.

#### Solution space:

The set of the start state and all the intermediate state constitutes something that is called a solution space.

For example;

The mouse has gone to various paths to go to the cheese.

#### Traveling in the solution space:

The traveling inside the solution space requires something called an operator. In the case of the mouse example turn left, turn right, go straight are the operators which help us the problem inside the solution space.

### 4: Learning:

There are a number of different forms of learning applied in artificial intelligence. The simplest is learning by trials and error.

• Lisp
• IPL
• Prolog
• STRIPS
• Planner
• Pop-11

## What are the 3 types of AI?

### 1: Narrow:

It is a type of AI it is very able to perform a task with intelligence. It is trained only one specific task. For example Apple saris.

### 2: General:

It can make such a system that could be smarter and think like a human. The system is still under research and it will take a lot of time and effort to develop such a system.

### 3: Strong:

In this system, the machine could surpass human intelligence. It can perform any task better than a human with cognitive properties.

## There are four types of type 2 Artificial Intelligence:

• Reactive Machine
• Limited Memory
• Theory of mind
• Self-Awareness

### Reactive Machines:

It does not have a past memory or cannot use past information. It only performs future action and stores future information. This machine is only focused on current scenarios or current situation.

### Limited memory:

It only uses past memory or can use past information. The data can’t be store for a long time in this memory. Self-driving cars are one of the best examples of limited memory. They observe other car speed limits and directions and nearby distances.

### Theory of Mind:

The theory of mind understands human emotions and also be able to interact with humans socially. This kind of machine is still not developed but researchers can do more effort to make this kind of machine.

### Self-Awareness:

Self-Awareness is the future of artificial intelligence.

## Advantages of Artificial Intelligence:

• It’s solving new problems.
• It handles the information properly.
• Improved interfaces.
• Faster decisions.
• Fewer errors
• Precise

## Artificial Intelligence Techniques:

• Intelligent agent
• Neural nets
• Expert system
• Learning

## Machine learning and Artificial Intelligence:

Machine learning is a simple concept machine. It’s a self-learning creating an algorithm. It does also allow learning new things from data. Its lead knowledge.

AI performs does smart work. Its decision making.AI leads intelligence.

## Deep learning and Artificial Intelligence:

Deep learning is working on the human brain that processes data and creates new patterns used in decision making.

Artificial Intelligence is a mimic human behavior.

## Future of Artificial Intelligence (AI):

The future is really unknown. The researchers seem to disagree on a lot of the same issue. With the rate at which technology is improving it is logical to believe AI will continue to get more and more sophisticated.  AI permeates many job sectors in the future. It can create a new career path in many fields in the future.

You may also know On-Chip/ Off-Chip Memory Storage in Artificial Intelligence