What is Rehabilitation?
Rehabilitation is process to best recover an individuals damaged or disordered state of nonfunctional to best optimal health and functioning. This not the process to reverse the damage caused by disease or trauma. Instead it best helps to restore the individual’s optimal health, functioning and well-being. The medicines or systems utilized in this purpose developed or build to meet each person’s specific need who needs head transplant, kidney transplant etc.
Process of Rehabilitation:
The process of rehabilitation based upon the re-training of mind. For that specific purpose which lost as a result to a trauma or disease. All of the functionality in human body triggered by the neurons in brain in shape of mini current pulse. Which travel through the nervous system and spinal-cord till the specific part or limb of the body. Whenever some shock occur which effects the normal functioning of the brain then in some cases one or more specific or random part or organs of body stop functioning physically.
In some cases after accidents or other tragic incidents due to injuries arms, legs, hands stop functioning properly like can’t bear wait or tremble while walking or unable to sense the surrounding. Rehabilitation done through continuous care and assistance. In rehabilitation centers doctors, nurses and other medical staff continuously keep patient engaged in physical training exercises & activities to regain or to get best optimal working state for impaired parts. Also in old ages, need of rehabilitation increases as body parts start growing week.
Rehabilitation in Robotics and Systems:
Rehabilitation robots and rehabilitation systems help regain the missing sensing and movements easier and faster then human assistance providing safer environments. The robotic systems developed for rehabilitation (Rehabilitation in Artificial Intelligence) serve various causes but most commonly they provide sense of touch, dexterity and natural mobility to paralyzed or missing limbs.
The prosthesis as old as ancient Egyptians, as in one case, a mummy found who big toe amputated during its life and replaced with a wooden toe. James Potts, in 19th century, designed and developed an artificial leg with tendons in which mechanism such that toe lift while bending the knee. In the duration of American civil war, more emphasize given to robotic rehabilitation systems. The advancement in technology in this regard was mostly possible due to the introduction of anesthetics. Every two years, a conference on rehabilitation (Rehabilitation in Artificial Intelligence) robotics and systems held since 1989.
The given picture below clearly demonstrates how widely robotic systems utilized for rehabilitation process and how much effective they as a robot repeat a task as many times as you want without a break, same exercises done without utilizing any human effort, only a monitoring person over several units enough in most of cases.
In the image various robot displayed from MIT Gym of robots which commercialized by Interactive Motion Technologies, Watertown, MA. Detail of these robots as under:
- MIT-MANUS, designed to promote the neurorecovery of the brain and to control the shoulder and elbow.
- The Antigravity, developed to promote the shoulder training against gravity.
- The wrist robot, this robot provides three degrees of freedom and utilized for the training of forearm and wrist.
- The Hand Module, developed to train the hand for grasping and release.
- With the wrist module mounted at the tip, this is the combination of elbow and shoulder robot. The first affording training for both object manipulation through hand and transport of arm.
- Sketch of MIT-Skywalker, this is the sketch of alpha prototype for gait training.
- MIT-MANUS, pediatric population working with MIT-MANUS.
- pediatric Anklebot, developed to afford training in dorsi/plantarflexion and inversion/eversion.
All of these robots provide assistance in recovery of various movements like grasping, gait, balancing, finger control etc. these are just a few from most emerging robotic research institute MIT, but there are others also working for the same cause.
as the rehabilitation (Rehabilitation in AI) robots assist mainly for the recovery of lost physical motions, there are some systems which help in rehabilitation of brain also. In case of brain injuries, some parts of brain stop functioning, brain is based upon integration of millions and billions of neurons where each neuron controls a specific function, in some cases when some neurons are damaged or dead, other neurons do have the ability to manipulate themselves to cover the missing neuron functionalities. For that proper training is required through visualization in most cases and other ways. For such trainings, games and other simulation assistance systems are developed which keep track of brains functional parts and ways to recover missing functionalities by continuous training.
Need and Importance:
With the advancement in technology we need to adopt the latest and best tools available to work in all fields. This era of science and technology has given very boost for the use of technology in medical. In field of rehabilitation, the rehabilitation (Rehabilitation in Artificial Intelligence) robots and systems are on main target for researchers and developers. Many of the products are being developed and under study for practical implementation over the globe. Also the approach of Robots in Biomedical science is growing rapidly.
Today almost 20% of the world population is over 65. Its a prediction that this number will rise to 35% till 2050. Which means if we will not adopt the rehabilitation (Rehabilitation in Artificial Intelligence) robotics and systems with these advancements. Then minimally we need another 17.5% of the population to take care of these. This prediction excludes the patients. So, its obvious that we need to take rboti and other systems as assistants. So that to help in recovery and other procedures.
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