Robots in BioMEMSL: Micro Robots are the robots that have size in microns. The term can also used for robots capable of handling micrometer size components. Microrobots are usually visible, whereas some nanobots not immediately visible to the human eye. which used in many industrial purposes. In medicine Robots in BioMEMS may used to assist with clinical goals such as surgeries.
Tiny intelligent machines:
These tiny intelligent machines will navigate throughout our bodies. These microrobots will aid medical professionals, in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of human diseases. Due to small size it can placed inside human body for diagnostic or cell removal purposes, replacing very invasive tubes such as an endoscope. Endoluminal operations performed by Robots in BioMEMS will potentially entail several different steps:
|a) processing previously acquired medical data (primarily images), simulation and planning of interventions.|
|b) computer design of the optimal configuration of the microrobotcustom-ized for the specific patient anatomy and for the planned therapy at the target site.|
|c) delivery of devices within the body to the desired site.|
|d) extremely precise execution of the intervention|
|e) disassembly, recovery or biodegradation of the devices.|
Micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) a small integrated system that consist of electronic and mechanical components involves parts less than 100 microns wide. MEMS typically produced from silicon. An accelerometer IC (MPU-6050) used to measure acceleration forces in three dimensions. An accelerometer can also use in medical devices such as bionic limbs and other artificial body parts.
IC contains a MEMS 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer:
In the above figure an IC contains a MEMS 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer on the same silicon die together with an onboard Digital Motion Processor™ (DMP™) capable of processing complex 9-axis Motion Fusion algorithms.
The microscopic deflecting mirrors that create the images from a digital projector are two examples of everyday MEMS. Usually, it is a combination of their low cost, low power consumption and small size that makes a MEMS based design the better choice compared to conventional technology. But MEMS can also be an enabling technology, opening new frontiers to science.
One application of small untethered robots that captured the attention of early researchers was in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. This passageway through the body, which can accommodate relatively large objects, is where the first commercial systems have been applied. These untethered, endoscopic capsules are the size of a pill and are simply swallowed by the patient. They capture video images from the GI path with their imaging and illumination systems while naturally travelling through the path. Other researchers proposed robotic systems with locomotion and biopsy capabilities Typically, robots (Robots in BioMEMS) built for the GI path are miniaturized mechatronic systems with many components of conventional design.
Where as in the field of medicine Challenging design issues present themselves when envisioning a medical microrobot (Robots in BioMEMS) for in-vivo applications. Devices must be small, reliable and biocompatible. They must carry the necessary tools and subsystems on-board. They must be inserted into, steered inside and removed from the target area of the patient’s body in a “non-invasive” way. It is difficult to resolve all these issues at once, also because much depends on the particular application.
Silicon and glass:
Conventional micromachining techniques such as wet etching, dry etching, deep reactive ion etching, sputtering, anodic bonding, and fusion bonding have been used in bio-MEMS to make flow channels, flow sensors, chemical detectors, separation capillaries, mixers, filters, pumps and valves.
Plastics and polymers:
Using plastics and polymers in bio-MEMS is attractive because they can be easily fabricated, compatible with micromachining and rapid prototyping methods, as well as have low cost. Many polymers are also optically transparent and can be integrated into systems that use optical detection techniques such as fluorescence, UV/Vis absorbance, or Raman method.
Microscale manipulation and patterning of biological materials such as proteins, cells and tissues have been used in the development of cell-based arrays, microarrays, microfabrication based tissue engineering and artificial organs. Biological micropatterning can be used for high-throughput single cell analysis, precise control of cellular microenvironment, as well as controlled integration of cells into appropriate multi-cellular architectures to recapitulate in vivo conditions. Photolithography, microcontact printing, selective microfluidic delivery, and self-assembled monolayers are some methods used to pattern biological molecules onto surfaces. Cell micropatterning can be done using microcontact patterning of extracellular matrix proteins, cellular electrophoresis, optical tweezer arrays, dielectrophoresis, and electrochemically active surfaces.
The Paper microfluidics (sometimes called lab on paper) is the use of paper substrates in microfabrication to manipulate fluid flow for different applications. Paper microfluidics have applied in paper electrophoresis and immunoassays, the most notable being the commercialized pregnancy test, ClearBlue. Advantages of using paper for microfluidics and electrophoresis in bio-MEMS include its low cost, biodegradability, and natural wicking action.
Electrokinetics have exploited in bio-MEMS for separating mixtures of molecules and cells using electrical fields. In electrophoresis, a charged species in a liquid moves under the influence of an applied electric field.Electrophoresis has used to fractionate small ions, charged organic molecules, proteins, and DNA. Electrophoresis and microfluidics are highly synergistic because it is possible to use higher voltages in microchannels due to faster heat removal. Isoelectric focusing is the separation of proteins, organelles, and cells with different isoelectric points. Isoelectric focusing requires a pH gradient (usually generated with electrodes) perpendicular to the flow direction.
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